Development is a very large debate because the concept is relatively defines differently from one region or one country to another one, depending on the reality. Coming back to the globalization, development means the wiliness of poor countries (in Africa, Caraïbe and Pacific) to reach the same level as developed countries such as USA, countries in Europe… The questions many researchers from social sciences are asking themselves today are: what is the role/participation/impact played by women and youth in the process of development? How are they considered today while talking about development? What is really happening on the field in developing countries? To answer these questions and more it is really important to access some key information that will help both developing and developed countries to notice the importance of taking in consideration the role played by women and youth in the process of development. The mistakes from the past help to increase the ideas for the cooperation for development. One of the major evolutions from international NGOs, states… is the consideration of the place or role of women and youth within development.
Talking about women, they are really late comparing to men in the education and it is notice that within 129 000 000 of youth that can go to primary school but don’t, 60% are female. Despite to many efforts that have been done to change this situation, many reason affecting gender are noticed such as culture, houses tasks, pregnancy, earlier marriage, while men/males are expecting to go far with school to be able to help the family growth. 70% of people living in very poor conditions are women with low accessibility to economy such as loan, becoming landlord or participation into decision making process. Despite the fact that women are doing 2/3 of the work, they are just owner of 1% of properties in the World. Women and men do not have equal chance to access jobs, the type/category of jobs is very different and the women salary is 60 to 70% inferior to men salary. Women in Cameroon are spending more time for jobs that are not salary based such as house chores, agriculture for survivance… Most of the time, the major responsibility of women is to take care of the house and kids (house chores, cooking for the family…). Only few women access high responsibilities – 2% – such as directors, managers; in the general, only 5% of Head of States, CEO of bigger companies, Internationals Organizations are women. Many stereotypes have been developed around gender issue and women are nearly obliged to accept their reality and conditions. Most of them are not welcoming any project that is designed to empower them and give them freedom.
Youth are also suffering the same problem as women. The reality is quite similar because the context is the same and all are based on education, job accessibility, active or non-active participation into development process. A study indicates that the youth poverty rate was 46.02% in 2007. Furthermore, there exist disparities in the incidence of poverty in Cameroon; households with children/youth in rural areas are six times as likely to at risk of poverty as compare with households with children/youth in urban area. 64% of all youth in Cameroon experience at least one form of deprivation. 30% lack access to food and information, 20% of education. The situation is the same for accessibility to jobs and participating to sustainable development. Youth development is especially important for young people who have little or no support from their families, schools, and communities. These hard to reach and under served youth, who frequently report high risk behavior and often lack access to health services, include: Youth who live on the street, Low-income young people, Youth in foster care and group homes, Young people in the juvenile justice system, Adolescents addicted to alcohol or other drugs, Youth in residential treatment facilities, Young people who have dropped out of school, Pregnant and parenting youth, Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender young people, Survivors of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse, Youth with mental or physical disabilities.
Considering their situations, Women and Youth started many actions to support other that are in the same conditions. Therefore many organizations, SME, are created and managed by either women or youth. Hope Foundation is one of those Organizations leading by Young people that is impacting people life in Cameroon in many domains since more than 10 years: Health, IT, Social Services, Protection of Environment, Education… Many conferences, forums and seminars are also organized around the world to find solutions we can name some example of youth conference in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in 2011 it was an African Youth (women included) conference in Niamey (Niger) for sustainable development.
This very last century, many government across the world have been questioning themselves on how to brake down all this situation and it come out many progress because it is found that women and youth play an important role today that have been neglected in the past. Since some years we can easily indentify some changes in the decision making process with the high consideration of participation of women and youth in the process of development. It becoming difficult for a project to succeed if gender and youth participation are not planned or taking in consideration. Despite these efforts, in Cameroon as in many developing countries the situation are not really moving forward because of cultures in certain regions of world where women are not allow to have other jobs if it is not house chores or non-profit jobs. Mentalities in many African Countries are still not considering youth as potential agent of positive change. So it is always a fight between desire situation and the reality. many NGOs have initiated lot of capacity building, youth and women empowerment projects, life skills development… but can’t succeed because of the acceptance of community that are still really behind everything. For example, there are only few people in Cameroon that are aware of the importance of Information Technology with Internet include. Women and youth Programs must tap the resources of community members, including parents and families, religious and business leaders, project planners should assess young participants to determine the developmental opportunities and services that would benefit each the most and ensure participants’ access to those opportunities.
Je pense que la peur prend trop de place dans notre vie. Beaucoup disent qu’ils ne passent pas à l’action parce qu’ils ont peur ou que la peur les retient. C’est ridicule, de quoi ont-ils peur ? Nous vivons dans un monde moderne où les peurs impulsives, celles qui sont liées à une menace physique et naturelle, n’existent plus.
Nous ne sommes pas pourchassés par des bêtes sauvages qui essaieraient de nous attaquer. La plupart des craintes que nous avons sont des pensées contemplatives négatives que nous ressassons et auxquelles nous associons beaucoup de douleur. Comme si la peur était quelque chose d’inconnu et d’effrayant, alors que la plupart du temps elle ne l’est pas.
La plupart de nos peurs sont liées à une mauvaise gestion de nos facultés mentales. Ce n’est pas une impulsion physique générée par notre cerveau qui nous dit de nous battre ou de fuir mais tout le monde veut utiliser cela comme une excuse.
Certains psychologues disent que la peur est quelque chose d’impulsif que les gens ne peuvent pas comprendre ou dont ils ne peuvent être conscients. Ce sont les peurs inconscientes qui nous anéantissent. Les neurosciences ont montré que la plupart d’entre nous ont des aptitudes beaucoup plus importantes que ce que nous pensons. Si vous comprenez ce qu’est la peur et c’est généralement un processus contemplatif, vous pouvez la surmonter.
Qu’est-ce que la peur?
De quoi a-t-on peur? Quelle est cette chose que nous craignons et qui va apporter tant de douleur dans nos vies? Avez-vous déjà réfléchi à cela? Quand vous comprenez mieux l’objet de vos craintes, elles deviennent moins terrifiantes. Une fois que vous en connaissez et maitrisez les causes, vous pouvez développer des compétences autour d’elles et une fois que vous avez gagné en compétence, vous développez votre confiance.
On parle souvent en psychologie de la boucle compétence/confiance: plus vous maîtrisez un sujet, plus vous devenez confiant dans ce domaine. C’est la même chose qui se produit avec tout ce qui peut générer impulsivement une certaine crainte en vous.
Une fois que vous comprenez ce que c’est, vous pouvez mieux le traiter. Ce sont essentiellement trois types de douleur, trois domaines où nous pourrions rencontrer la douleur dans nos vies. Une fois que nous comprenons ça, nous pouvons détourner notre esprit et arrêter d’être frustrés ou bloqués par la peur.