Women and gender

Women, Youth and Development: Daily Challenge

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Development is a very large debate because the concept is relatively defines differently from one region or one country to another one, depending on the reality. Coming back to the globalization, development means the wiliness of poor countries (in Africa, Caraïbe and Pacific) to reach the same level as developed countries such as USA, countries in Europe… The questions many researchers from social sciences are asking themselves today are: what is the role/participation/impact played by women and youth in the process of development? How are they considered today while talking about development? What is really happening on the field in developing countries? To answer these questions and more it is really important to access some key information that will help both developing and developed countries to notice the importance of taking in consideration the role played by women and youth in the process of development. The mistakes from the past help to increase the ideas for the cooperation for development. One of the major evolutions from international NGOs, states… is the consideration of the place or role of women and youth within development.

****

Talking about women, they are really late comparing to men in the education and it is notice that within 129 000 000 of youth that can go to primary school but don’t, 60% are female. Despite to many efforts that have been done to change this situation, many reason affecting gender are noticed such as culture, houses tasks, pregnancy, earlier marriage, while men/males are expecting to go far with school to be able to help the family growth. 70% of people living in very poor conditions are women with low accessibility to economy such as loan, becoming landlord or participation into decision making process. Despite the fact that women are doing 2/3 of the work, they are just owner of 1% of properties in the World. Women and men do not have equal chance to access jobs, the type/category of jobs is very different and the women salary is 60 to 70% inferior to men salary. Women in Cameroon are spending more time for jobs that are not salary based such as house chores, agriculture for survivance… Most of the time, the major responsibility of women is to take care of the house and kids (house chores, cooking for the family…). Only few women access high responsibilities – 2% – such as directors, managers; in the general, only 5% of Head of States, CEO of bigger companies, Internationals Organizations are women. Many stereotypes have been developed around gender issue and women are nearly obliged to accept their reality and conditions. Most of them are not welcoming any project that is designed to empower them and give them freedom.

Youth are also suffering the same problem as women. The reality is quite similar because the context is the same and all are based on education, job accessibility, active or non-active participation into development process. A study indicates that the youth poverty rate was 46.02% in 2007. Furthermore, there exist disparities in the incidence of poverty in Cameroon; households with children/youth in rural areas are six times as likely to at risk of poverty as compare with households with children/youth in urban area. 64% of all youth in Cameroon experience at least one form of deprivation. 30% lack access to food and information, 20% of education. The situation is the same for accessibility to jobs and participating to sustainable development. Youth  development  is  especially  important  for  young  people who  have  little  or  no  support  from  their families, schools, and communities.  These hard to reach and under served youth, who frequently report high risk behavior and often lack access to health services, include: Youth who live on the street, Low-income young people, Youth in foster care and group homes, Young people in the juvenile justice system, Adolescents addicted to alcohol or other drugs, Youth in residential treatment facilities, Young people who have dropped out of school, Pregnant and parenting youth, Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender young people, Survivors of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse, Youth with mental or physical disabilities.

Considering their situations, Women and Youth started many actions to support other that are in the same conditions. Therefore many organizations, SME, are created and managed by either women or youth. Hope Foundation is one of those Organizations leading by Young people that is impacting people life in Cameroon in many domains since more than 10 years: Health, IT, Social Services, Protection of Environment, Education… Many conferences, forums and seminars are also organized around the world to find solutions we can name some example of youth conference in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in 2011 it was an African Youth (women included) conference in Niamey (Niger) for sustainable development.

*****

This very last century, many government across the world have been questioning themselves on how to brake down all this situation and it come out many progress because it is found that women and youth play an important role today that have been neglected in the past. Since some years we can easily indentify some changes in the decision making process with the high consideration of participation of women and youth in the process of development. It becoming difficult for a project to succeed if gender and youth participation are not planned or taking in consideration. Despite these efforts, in Cameroon as in many developing countries the situation are not really moving forward because of cultures in certain regions of world where women are not allow to have other jobs if it is not house chores or non-profit jobs. Mentalities in many African Countries are still not considering youth as potential agent of positive change. So it is always a fight between desire situation and the reality. many NGOs have initiated lot of capacity building, youth and women empowerment projects, life skills development… but can’t succeed because of the acceptance of community that are still really behind everything. For example, there are only few people in Cameroon that are aware of the importance of Information Technology with Internet include. Women and youth Programs must tap the resources of community members, including parents and families, religious and business leaders, project planners should assess young participants to determine the developmental opportunities and services that would benefit each the most and ensure participants’ access to those opportunities.

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Comment vaincre la peur qui empêche votre évolution

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Je pense que la peur prend trop de place dans notre vie. Beaucoup disent qu’ils ne passent pas à l’action parce qu’ils ont peur ou que la peur les retient. C’est ridicule, de quoi ont-ils peur ? Nous vivons dans un monde moderne où  les peurs impulsives, celles qui sont liées à une menace physique et naturelle, n’existent plus.

Nous ne sommes pas pourchassés par des bêtes sauvages qui essaieraient de nous attaquer. La plupart des craintes que nous avons sont des pensées contemplatives négatives que nous ressassons et auxquelles nous associons beaucoup de douleur. Comme si la peur était quelque chose d’inconnu et d’effrayant, alors que la plupart du temps elle ne l’est pas.

La plupart de nos peurs sont liées à une mauvaise gestion de nos facultés mentales. Ce n’est pas une impulsion physique générée par notre cerveau qui nous dit de nous battre ou de fuir mais tout le monde veut utiliser cela comme une excuse.

Certains psychologues disent que la peur est quelque chose d’impulsif que les gens ne peuvent pas comprendre ou dont ils ne peuvent être conscients. Ce sont les peurs inconscientes qui nous anéantissent. Les neurosciences ont montré que la plupart d’entre nous ont des aptitudes beaucoup plus importantes que ce que nous pensons. Si vous comprenez ce qu’est la peur et c’est généralement un processus contemplatif, vous pouvez la surmonter.

Qu’est-ce que la peur?

De quoi a-t-on peur? Quelle est cette chose que nous craignons et qui va apporter tant de douleur dans nos vies? Avez-vous déjà réfléchi à cela? Quand vous comprenez mieux l’objet de vos craintes, elles deviennent moins terrifiantes. Une fois que vous en connaissez et maitrisez les causes, vous pouvez développer des compétences autour d’elles et une fois que vous avez gagné en compétence, vous développez votre confiance.

On parle souvent en psychologie de la boucle compétence/confiance: plus vous maîtrisez un sujet, plus vous devenez confiant dans ce domaine. C’est la même chose qui se produit avec tout ce qui peut générer impulsivement une certaine crainte en vous.

Une fois que vous comprenez ce que c’est, vous pouvez mieux le traiter. Ce sont essentiellement trois types de douleur, trois domaines où nous pourrions rencontrer la douleur dans nos vies. Une fois que nous comprenons ça, nous pouvons détourner notre esprit et arrêter d’être frustrés ou bloqués par la peur.

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L’Afrique, verre à moitié VIDE ou PLEIN?

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J’ai commencé à me poser cette question il y’a bien plusieurs années, pourtant tous les jours ca me revient à l’esprit et toujours je n’ai pas de réponse fixe. La vie présente bien des réalités que seul le bon sens nous permet de comprendre et ainsi de surmonter certaines difficultés et challenges que nous rencontrons au quotidien.

La perception ou les préjugés que nous nous faisons des autres ou de la vie elle même nous jouent des sales tours et nous poussent la plupart de temps à porter des jugements et même des décisions hatives.

Notre vie et bien plus les faits sociaux que nous rencontrons dans notre vécu quotidien présentent plusieurs facettes. Regardons bien ce verre.

verremoitie

Comment la trouvez-vous?

A moitié VIDE?

Ou a moitié PLEIN?

Certains diront A MOITIE VIDE. Bien évidemment, ils n’ont pas tord de voire ainsi car en effet c’est un verre à moitié VIDE que nous avons. Seulement cette façon de voir est propre aux personnes qui voient sous cet angle le verre presque vide.

D’autre diront A MOITIE PLEIN. Et la aussi, ils n’ont pas tord. car ce verre est aussi à moitié PLEIN. C’est aussi une façon de voir qui se trouve juste à côté de l’autre.

Si nous ramenons ces deux notions à notre vie de tous les jours, nous allons l’analyser et le comprendre de deux manières différentes et valable.

Pour continuer, permettez moi de prendre un exemple sur notre continent: l’Afrique, ou encore nimporte quel des ses 54 pays. Comment voyons nous l’Afrique? Que représente l’Afrique à nos yeux? Un verre à moitié VIDE ou un verre à moitié PLEIN?

J’entends souvent des grands hommes Africains dans des chaînes de télé, sur internet dirent que “l’Afrique est mal partie”, ou encore que “l’Afrique est pauvre”… AfricaPBEn fait pour ceux qui le disent, il considèrent l’Afrique comme un verre à moitié VIDE. Tous comme nous qui observons ou analysons nos problèmes de vie avec une dose de suggectivité. Nous sommes ainsi pessimistes et ne voyons que le négatif (VIDE), vous savez, si ce verre vous continuer de lui retirer son liquide, il va se vider totalement. Tout comme lorsque nous avons longtemps chercher le travail sans trouver, ou encore longtemps travailler sans salaire ni sécurité sociale, nous restons plonger dans cette état de somnolence qui nous obscurcit la vue. tout deviens noir pour nous. Nous n’avons plus une seule lueur d’espoir et en ce moment, c’est très facile de se regarder chaque soir dans un miroir et se dire: “en tout cas, je suis fils/fille d’une génération perdue, donc je suis moi même perdu(e)”. Nous avons longtemps pensé que nous ne valons rien, que notre continent est pauvre, que nous sommes démunis, nous sommes dans la misère…

Vrai au vue de la réalité que nous vivons au quotidien.

Mais en se rendant à l’évidence de cette façon nous nous resolvons à creuser notre tombe et à préparer notre descente aux enfers. Des gens diront que je suis idéaliste, pourtant la vérité est là. Nous avons beau nous lamenter, Notre verre sera toujours A MOITIE VIDE ce qui veut dire plus proche de se vider totalement.

Pourtant en regardant le même verre dans un autres sens, nous nous rendons bien compte qu’en étant à moitié vide, il est aussi A MOITIE PLEIN. Si nous observons le mouvement et la différence entre PLEIN et VIDE.

We say yes. We use positives words and sentences to drive hope, careness, friendship, passion, development. We say YES YES
We say yes. We use positives words and sentences to drive hope, careness, friendship, passion, development. We say YES YES

Nous verrons que le verre à moitié plein donne un sens, présente une situation de valorisation de quelque chose qu’on a et qui a de la valeur. Ton verre est a moitié vide, c’est bien le mien il est à moitié PLEIN. Je ne sais pas, s’y trouve un Coca-Cola, mon Matango ou quoi. (rire) En fait c’est une façon différente d’appréhender ses problèmes, de faire face à ses difficultés de vie dans un élan plus positif on arrive a valoriser un potentiel, une ressource. celui qui voit le verre à moité PLEIN est positif, ne se focalise pas sur le problème, mais donne un sens au peu qu’il possède. Regardons l’Afrique vu autrement que sur la première image. Si des gens voient 70% de jeunes en chômage au Cameroun, je vois moi, 70% de possibilités d’emploi et qui dit emploi dit plus de revenu et  croissance.

Notre continent possède bien plus de resources que de problèmes. Nous sommes retardés parce que nous n’arrivons pas à transformer nos problèmes en solutions.

En plus en regardant de plus prèt, nous constaterons que le VIDE dont nous parlions plus haut n’a même pas sa place car techniquement, ce vide est occupé par de l’air, donc en fait notre verre est plein différemment. Finalement, en positivant un problème quelconque, on arrive a trouver solution. Mon expérience de vie est contruite autour de cette façon de voir les choses et d’aborder mes difficultés. Après tant de promesses de travail non respectées, travail en entreprises pendant plus de 4 ans, je me suis retrouvé au chômage et ne savais plus quoi faire. C’est en ce moment que j’ai commencé à regarder de prèt mon verre (MOI ET MA VIE). Je me suis rendu compte que j’avais quelque chose de particulier qui se resumait en cet ensemble de choses: Le savoir (mes connaissance dans plusieurs domaines), le courage, la persévérence, le rêve et bien plus. verremoitie2Toutes ces choses n’étaient pas valorisées ou mieux je pensais passer par autres moyens pour m’épanouir et trouver le bonheur. Ainsi j’avais développer en moi une vue sombre de mon avenir qui venait se rejoindre à toutes ces expériences négatives pour noircir ma percepetion de la vie. Lorsque j’ai compris que j’avais du talent à revendre et qu’au lieu de le dépenser pour les autres ou encore dans des pensées obscures, je devais le mettre à profit pour développer quelque chose de fantastic et que j’aime, je me suis lancer dans l’entrepreneuriat social qui m’amène à vous aujourd’hui et j’en suis fiers.

J’ai découvert ma passion, vous aussi si vous ne l’avez pas encore, il serait temps de vous poser les bonnes questions, de vous remettre en cause, de trouver en vous ce qui vous empêche d’avancer, redéfinissez vous car si vous ne savez pas qui vous êtes vraiment, ce serait facile de voir votre verre toujours à moitié VIDE.

Clotaire Ntienou

Women, Youth and Development: Daily Challenge in Developping Countries

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Development is a very large debate because the concept is relatively defines differently from one region or one country to another one, depending on the reality. Coming back to the globalization, development means the wiliness of poor countries (in Africa, Caraïbe and Pacific) to reach the same level as developed countries such as USA, countries in Europe… The questions many researchers from social sciences are asking themselves today are: what is the role/participation/impact played by women and youth in the process of development? How are they considered today while talking about development? What is really happening on the field in developing countries? To answer these questions and more, it is really important to access some key information that will help both developing and developed countries to notice the importance of taking in consideration the role played by women and youth in the process of development. The mistakes from the past help to increase the ideas for better cooperation for development. One of the major evolutions from international NGOs, states… is the consideration of the place or role of women and youth while talking of (or in the process of) development.

Talking about women, they are really late comparing to men in the education and it is notice that within 129.000.000 of youth that can go to primary school but don’t, 60% are female. Despite to many efforts that have been done to change this situation, many reason affecting gender are noticed such as culture, houses tasks, pregnancy, earlier marriage, while men/males are expecting to go far with school to be able to help the family growth. 70% of people living in very poor conditions are women with low accessibility to economy such as loan, becoming landlord or participation into decision making process. Despite the fact that women are doing 2/3 of the work, they are just owner of 1% of properties in the World. Women and men do not have equal chance to access jobs, the type/category of jobs is very different and the women salary is 60 to 70% inferior to men salary. Women in Cameroon are spending more time for jobs that are not salary based such as house chores, agriculture for survival… Most of the time, the major responsibility of women is to take care of the house and kids (house chores, cooking for the family, cleaning clothes, going to market, farming…). Only few women access high responsibilities – 2% – such as directors, managers; in the general, only 5% of Head of States, CEO of bigger companies, Internationals Organizations are women. Many stereotypes have been developed around gender issue and women are nearly obliged to accept their reality and conditions. Most of them are not welcoming any project that is designed to empower them and give them freedom.

Youth also are suffering the same problem as women. The reality is quite similar because the context is the same and all are based on education, job accessibility, active or non-active participation into development process. A study indicates that the youth poverty rate was 46.02% in 2007. Furthermore, there exist disparities in the incidence of poverty in Cameroon; households with children/youth in rural areas are six times as likely to at risk of poverty as compare with households with children/youth in urban area. 64% of all youth in Cameroon experience at least one form of deprivation. 30% lack access to food and information, 20% of education. The situation is the same for accessibility to jobs and participating to sustainable development. Youth  development  is  especially  important  for  young  people who  have  little  or  no  support  from  their families, schools, and communities.  These hard to reach and underserved youth, who frequently report high risk behavior and often lack access to health services, include: Youth who live on the street, Low-income young people, Youth in foster care and group homes, Young people in the juvenile justice system, Adolescents addicted to alcohol or other drugs, Youth in residential treatment facilities, Young people who have dropped out of school, Pregnant and parenting youth, Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender young people, Survivors of childhood sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse, Youth with mental or physical disabilities.

Considering their situations, Women and Youth started many actions to support other that are in the same conditions. Therefore many organizations, SME, are created and managed by either women or youth. WebDev Foundation, Bekondo Foundation and Njioh FLIC are ones of those Organizations leading by Young people and impacting lifes in Cameroon in many domains since more than 10 years: Health, IT, Social Services, Protection of Environment, Education, social justice, financial litteracy… At wide level, many conferences, forums and seminars are also organized around the world to find solutions on the above mentioned issue. We have for example youth conference in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, in 2011 there was an African Youth (women included) conference in Niamey (Niger) for sustainable development.

This very last century, many government across the world have been questioning themselves on how to break down all this situation and it come out many progress because it is found that women and youth play an important role today that have been neglected in the past. Since some years we can easily indentify some changes in the decision making process with the high consideration of participation of women and youth in the process of development. It becoming difficult for a project to succeed if gender and youth participation are not planned or taking in consideration. Despite these efforts, in Cameroon as in many developing countries the situation are not really moving forward because of cultures in certain regions of world where women are not allow to have other jobs if it is not house chores or non-profit jobs. Mentalities in many African Countries are still not considering youth as potential agent of positive change. So it is always a fight between desire situation and the reality. many NGOs have initiated lot of capacity building, youth and women empowerment projects, life skills development… but can’t succeed because of the acceptance of community that are still really behind everything. For example, there are only few people in Cameroon that are aware of the importance of Information Technology with Internet include. Women and youth Programs must tap the resources of community members, including parents and families, religious and business leaders, project planners should assess young participants to determine the developmental opportunities and services that would benefit each the most and ensure participants’ access to those opportunities.

Clotaire Ntienou